Emergency Substitutions
Using the ingredients recommended in the recipe is best.  But if you have to substitute, try the following:
                  Instead of :   Use:
Food Amount Substitute
    Mix 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, 2 1/2 tsp baking powder and 
Baking Mix 2 Cups 3/4 tsp salt.  Cut in 1/3 cup shortening until mixture looks
    like fine crumbs
Baking Powder 1 teaspoon 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
Balsamic Vinegar 1 tablespoon 1 Tbsp sherry or cider vinegar
Bread Crumbs, 1/4 cup 1/4 cup finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes, or
Dry   quick-cooking or old-fashioned oats.
Broth, Chicken, 1 cup 1 tsp chicken, beef, or vegetable bouillon granules
Beef or Vegetable   (or 1 cube) dissolved in 1 cup boiling water.
Buttermilk or 1 cup 1 Tbsp lemon juice or white vinegar plus enough milk to make
Sour Milk   1 cup. Let stand a few minutes.  Or use 1 cup plain yogurt.
Capers 1 tablespoon 1 Tbsp chopped green onions
Semisweet baking 1 ounce 1 ounce unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 Tbsp sugar.
Semisweet chips 1 cup 6 ounces semisweet baking chocolate, chopped.
Unsweetened baking 1 ounce 3 Tbsp baking cocoa plus 1 Tbsp shortening or margarine.
Cornstarch 1 tablespoon 2 Tbsp all-purpose flour or 4 tsp quick-cooking tapioca.
Corn Syrup    
Light 1 cup 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water.
Dark 1 cup 1 cup light corn syrup; 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4
    cup molasses; or 1 cup maple flavored syrup.
Eggs 1 Large 2 egg whites; 1/4 cup cholesterol-free egg product; 2 egg
  yolks (for custard or puddings); or 2 egg yolks plus 1 Tbsp
    water (for cookies or bars).
All-purpose 1 cup 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp cake flour.
Cake 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.
Self-rising 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 
    1/2 tsp salt.
(finely chopped) 1 medium clove 1/8 tsp garlic powder or 1/4 tsp instant minced garlic.
Gingerroot (grated 1 teaspoon 3/4 tsp ground ginger.
or finely chopped)    
Herbs 1 tablespoon 3/4 to 1 tsp dried herbs.
(chopped fresh)    
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water or apple juice.
Leeks (sliced) 1/2 cup 1/2 cup sliced shallots or green onions.
Lemon Juice (fresh) 1 tablespoon 1 Tbsp bottled lemon juice or white vinegar.
Lemon Peel (grated) 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon dried lemon peel.
Milk 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water: or nonfat
(regular or low-fat)   dry milk prepared as directed on package.
Molasses 1 cup 1/2 cup honey 9flavor will be milder)
Mushrooms (fresh) 1 cup cooked (sliced) 1 can (4 ounces) mushroom stems and pieces, drained.
Mustard 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon ground mustard (dry).
Orange Peel (grated) 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon dried orange peel.
Poultry Seasoning 1 teaspoon 1/4 tsp ground thyme plus 3/4 tsp ground sage.
Pumpkin or Apple 1 teaspoon Mix 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger,
Pie Spice   1/8 tsp ground allspice and 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg.
Red Pepper Sauce 3 or 4 drops 1/8 tsp ground red pepper (cayenne).
Sesame Seed 1 tablespoon 1 Tbsp finely chopped blanched almonds.
Sour Cream 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt.
Sugar, Brown (packed) 1 cup 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 Tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup.
Sugar (granulated) 1 cup 1 cup light brown sugar (packed) or 2 cups powdered sugar.
Tomato Paste 1/2 cup 1 cup tomato sauce cooked uncovered until reduced to 1/2 cup.
Tomato Sauce 2 cups 3/4 cup tomato paste plust 1 cup water.
Tomatoes (canned) 1 cup About 1 1/3 cups cut-up fresh tomatoes, simmered 10 minutes.
Whipping Cream 1 cup 1 cup frozen (thawed) whipped topping or
(whipped)   1 cup prepared whipped topping mix.
Wine, Red 1 cup 1 cup apple cidre or beef broth.
Wine, White 1 cup 1 cup apple juice, apple cider or chicken broth.
Yeast (regular or 1 package 2 1/4 tsp regular or quick active dry or 1 package (0.6 ounce)
quick active dry) (1/4 ounce0 compressed cake yeast.